Using Transformational Leadership to Create Brave Space in Teaching Multicultural Education


  • Shihua Brazill Montana State University
  • William Ruff Montana State University



Multicultural Education, Transformational Leadership, Teacher Education, Pre-Service Teachers, Brave Space


The study explores how multicultural education instructors use transformational leadership to establish “brave space” as a foundation for critical conversations about identity. Establishing brave space within education courses is essential to facilitating pre-service teachers’ understanding of social justice; yet, little research exists regarding the use of transformational classroom leadership to achieve this. This qualitative study is comprised of semi-structured interviews with three instructors through a lens of transformational classroom leadership. Our findings suggest that transformational leadership practices such as modelling the way, challenging the process, encouraging the heart, etc. facilitate students’ understanding of identity, relational trust, and their tacit values.

Author Biographies

Shihua Brazill, Montana State University

Assistant Teaching Professor, Multicultural Education
Instructional Designer, Center for Faculty Excellence 
Bozeman MT  59717 USA

William Ruff, Montana State University

Professor, Educational Leadership
Associate Director of Center for Bilingual and Multicultural Education
Bozeman MT  59717 USA




How to Cite

Brazill, S., & Ruff, W. (2022). Using Transformational Leadership to Create Brave Space in Teaching Multicultural Education. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 24(2), 114–131.



Articles (Peer-reviewed)