International Students’ Lived Experiences with Intercultural Competence in a Southwest Florida University
Keywords:international students, intercultural competence, internationalization, higher education, phenomenology.
Intercultural competence reflects higher education institutions’ commitment to the internationalization of campus, programs, and curricula and results in attracting/retaining international students. Numerous studies explore international students’ challenges adapting to the receiving country; however, limited research investigates their experiences with intercultural competence. Thus, a phenomenological study was conducted to investigate the lived experiences of 12 international students with intercultural competence at a Southwest Florida university. The constant comparison method identified three dimensions of the participants’ lived experiences: institutional, curricular, and interpersonal. The findings indicated a lack of intercultural competence in each dimension, significantly impacting students’ academic and social experiences.
Akhtar, S. (2011). Immigration and acculturation: Mourning, adaptation, and the next generation. Jason Aronson.
Aktas, F., Pitts, K., Richards, J. C., & Silova, I. (2017). Institutionalizing global citizenship: A critical analysis of higher education programs and curricula. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(1), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315316669815
Alghamdi, H., & Otte, S. (2016). The challenges and benefits of study abroad. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 6(5), 16–22.
Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3-4), 290–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315307303542
Altbach, P. G., & Yudkevich, M. (2017). International faculty in 21-st century universities. In M. Yudkevich, P. G. Altbach, & L. E. Rumbley (Eds.), International faculty in higher education: Comparative perspectives on recruitment, integration, and impact (pp. 1–14). Routledge.
Andreotti, V. (2006). Soft versus critical global citizenship education. Policy & Practice A Development Education Review, 3, 40–51.
Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2010). Intercultural Knowledge and Competence VALUE Rubric. http://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/pdf/InterculturalKnowledge.pdf
Banks, J. A. (2008). Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age. Educational Researcher, 37(3), 129–139. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X08317501
Barker, M. C., & Mak, A. S. (2013). From classroom to boardroom and ward: Developing generic intercultural skills in diverse disciplines. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(5), 573–589. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313490200
Bedenlier, S. (2017). Internationalization within higher education and its influence on faculty: Experiences of Turkish academic staff. Journal of Research in International Education, 16(2), 185–196. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240917724272
Bui, T. (2021). Becoming an intercultural doctoral student: Negotiating cultural dichotomies. Journal of International Students, 11(1), 257–265. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i1.1272
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Multilingual Matters.
Caruana, V. (2014). Re-thinking global citizenship in higher education: From cosmopolitanism and international mobility to cosmopolitanisation, resilience and resilient thinking. Higher Education Quarterly, 68(1), 85–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12030
Castles, S. (2017). The challenges of International Migration in the 21st century. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Citizenship education and global migration: Implications for theory, research, and teaching, (pp. 3–21). American Educational Research Association.
Constantine, M. G., Okazaki, S., & Utsey, S. O. (2004). Self-concealment, social self-efficacy, acculturative stress, and depression in African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(3), 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-94126.96.36.199
Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241–266. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306287002
Exposito, J. A. (2015). A phenomenological study of the international student experience at an American college (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest (10010659).
Fischer, K. (2021, April 9). After anti-Asian incidents, colleges seek to reassure fearful international students. https://www.chronicle.com/article/after-anti-asian-incidents-colleges-seek-to-reassure-fearful-international-students?bc_nonce=3li1at1xx1y36di74t3a47&cid=reg_wall_signup
Fulbright Commission. (2020, June). Universities: Perceptions, impacts and benefits of higher education around the world. https://www.kcl.ac.uk/policy-institute/assets/fulbright-survey-2020.pdf
Georgiou, M., & Savvidou, C. (2014). ‘Either you know Greek or too bad for you’: International students’ intercultural experiences in Cyprus. Intercultural Education, 25(1), 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2014.883190
Günçavdi, G. (2016). Level of intercultural competence of international students at Kocaeli University. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(12A), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.041306
Hanada, S. (2019). A quantitative assessment of Japanese students’ intercultural competence developed through study abroad programs. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1015–1037. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i4.39
Hei, M., Tabacaru, C., Sjoer, E., Rippe, R., & Walenkamp, J. (2020). Developing intercultural competence through collaborative learning in international higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 24(2), 190–211. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315319826226
Institute of International Education. (2020). Open doors data: Enrollment trends. https://opendoorsdata.org/data/international-students/enrollment-trends/
Janeiro, M. G. F., Fabre, R. L., Parra, J. P. N. (2014). Building intercultural competence through intercultural competency certification of undergraduate students. Journal of International Education Research, 10(1), 15–22.
Jang, Y. J., Woo, H., & Henfield, M. S. (2014). A qualitative study of challenges faced by international doctoral students in counselor education supervision courses. Asian Pacific Education Review, 15(4), 561–572. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-014-9342-9
Lambert, R. D. (Ed.). (1993). Educational exchange and global competence. Council on International Educational Exchange.
Leask, B., & Carroll, J. (2011). Moving beyond ‘wishing and hoping’: Internationalisation and student experiences of inclusion and engagement. Higher Education Research & Development, 30(5), 647–659. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2011.598454
Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53(3), 381–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-005-4508-3
Luo, J., & Jamieson-Drake, D. (2013). Examining the educational
benefits of interacting with international students. Journal of International Students, 3(2) ,85–101.
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th ed.). Jossey-Bass.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. SAGE Publications.
Mori, J., & Takeuchi, J. D. (2016). Campus diversity and global education: A case study of a Japanese program. Foreign Language Annals, 49(1), 146–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12182
NAFSA: Association of International Educators. (2014). Explore international education: International student economic value tool. https://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/international_students_fact_sheet.pdf
NCES, National Center for Education Statistics (2019, February). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups 2017. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019038.pdf
NCES, National Center for Education Statistics (2020, May). Undergraduate enrollment. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cha.asp
Nguyen, A. (2017). Intercultural competence in short-term study abroad. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 29(2), 109–127.
Olivas, M., & Li, C. (2006). Understanding stressors of international students in higher education: What college counselors and personnel need to know. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(3), 217–222.
Paltridge, T., Mayson, S., & Schapper, J. (2012). Covering the gap: Social inclusion, international students and the role of local government. Australian Universities Review, 54(2), 29–39.
Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.
Perry, C. J., Lausch, D. W., Weatherford, J., Goeken, R., & Almendares, M. (2017). International students’ perceptions of university life. College Student Journal, 51(2), 279–290.
Popova, J., & Bebenova-Nikolova, D. (2017). Intercultural competence acquisition of international students educators in two universities in Bulgaria and China. Journal of Danubian Studies and Research, 7(2). 509–523.
Poyrazli, S., & Kavanaugh, P. R. (2006). Marital status, ethnicity, academic achievement, and adjustment strains: The case of graduate international students. College Student Journal, 40(4), 767–780.
Poyrazli, S., & Lopez, M. D. (2007). An exploratory study of perceived discrimination and homesickness: A comparison of international and American students. Journal of Psychology, 141(3), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.141.3.263-280.
Richards, L. (2015). Handling qualitative data: A practical guide (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications.
Rogers, A. (2020, November 1). Internationalizing the campus at home: Campus globalization in the context of COVID-19. https://iie.widen.net/s/dgz5cmjb6z/internationalizing-the-campus-at-home-1
Sanderson, G. (2011). Internationalisation and teaching in higher education. Higher Education Research and Development, 30(5), 661–676. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2011.598455
Spiro, J. (2011). Guided interaction as intercultural learning: Designing internationalisation into a mixed delivery teacher education programme. Higher Education Research and Development, 30(5), 635–646. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.598453
Tran, L. T. (2010). Embracing prior professional experience in meaning making: Views from international students and academics. Educational Review, 63(2), 157–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131910903548669
Trice, A. G., & Yoo, J. E. (2007). International graduate students’ perceptions of their academic experience. Journal of Research in International Education, 6(1), 41–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240907074788
Urban, E. L., & Palmer, L. B. (2016). International students’ perceptions of the value of U.S. higher education. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 153–174.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (2020, July 6). SEVP modifies temporary exemptions for nonimmigrant students taking online courses during fall 2020 semester. https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/sevp-modifies-temporary-exemptions-nonimmigrant-students-taking-online-courses-during
Van Damme, D. (2001, September 10-11). Higher Education in the Age of Globalisation: The need for a new regulatory framework for recognition, quality assurance and accreditation. Paper presented at the UNESCO Expert Meeting.
Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. University of Western Ontario.
Van Manen, M. (2014). Phenomenology of practice: Meaning-giving methods in phenomenological research and writing. Routledge.
Wan, T., Chapman, D. W., & Biggs, D. A. (1992) Academic stress of international students attending U.S. university. Research in Higher Education, 33(5), 607–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00973761
Wickline, V. B., Shea, A. M., Young, C. D., & Wiese, D. (2020). Increasing intercultural competence in undergraduate education: Study abroad is a viable way, but not the only way. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 32(3), 126–155. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v32i3.582
Wildalvsky, B. (2010). The great brain race: How global universities are reshaping the world. Princeton University Press.
Wilson-Forsberg, S., Power, P., Kilgour, V., & Darling, S. (2018). From class assignment to friendship: Enhancing the intercultural competence of domestic and international students through experiential learning. Canadian and International Education, 47(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.5206/cie-eci.v47i1.9322
Yuan, W. (2010). Investigating international student perceptions of adjustment through Q methodology. Intercultural Communication Studies, 19(2). 235–252.
Zenner, K., & Squire, D. (2020). International student success: Exploring the intercultural competence of academic advisors. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 57(3), 338–351. https://doi.org/10.1080/19496591.2019.1707092
Zhai, L. (2002). Studying international students: Adjustment issues and social support. ERIC Document 474481. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474481.pdf
How to Cite
So that authors and publisher may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use of the contents published in IJME, we require, as a condition of publication, that authors assign us all rights, including subsidiary rights, to their work. This enables us to promote and distribute the contribution in professionally appropriate venues. Authors have nonexclusive license to use their work without charge and without further permission after it has been published by IJME, as long as the IJME publication is referenced.