A Complex Mix of Confidence, Uncertainty, and Struggle: Korean Secondary Social Studies Teachers’ Perspectives and Practice on Multiculturalism
Keywords:social studies, South Korea, teacher conceptualization, multiculturalism, curriculum change
This study examines perspectives and practices regarding multiculturalism among 20 secondary social studies teachers in South Korea. Utilizing semi-structured interviews and critical discourse analysis, the study seeks to capture how teachers’ understandings of multiculturalism (Damunhwa in Korean) and its practice are influenced by curriculum changes, interactions with Damunhwa students, school duties, and personal experiences. The study finds that teachers know curriculum changes clearly, have little understanding of Damunhwa students, and experience discrepancies between high intellectual recognition of multiculturalism and their own ingrained biases.
Abelmann, N., Chung, G., Ham, S., Kang, J. & Lee, Q. (2014). Make-shift multiculturalism: The transformation of Elementary School Teacher Training. In Lie, J. (Eds), Multiethnic Korea?: Multiculturalism, migration, and peoplehood diversity in contemporary South Korea (pp. 96-115). Institute of East Asian Studies: University of California, Berkeley.
Bakhtin, M. M. (2010). The dialogic imagination: Four essays (Vol. 1). University of Texas Press.
Banks, J. A. (2006). Cultural diversity and education. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Cha, Y. K., Kim, S. & Ham, S. H. (2013). Damunhwa kyoyuk kwa kuknae asia ijumin: Hyŏnhwang kwa kwaje [Multicultural education and Asian immigrants in Korea: Current status and evolving issues]. Damunhwa Kyoyuk Yeongu, 6(1), 105-126.
Chang, Y. M. (2015). Teachers’ perspectives: Making sense of ethnic nationalism, ethnic identity and multicultural education in South Korea. International Journal of Education, 7(1), 17-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/ije.v7i2.7018
Charmaz, K., & McMullen, L. M. (2011). Five ways of doing qualitative analysis: Phenomenological psychology, grounded theory, discourse analysis, narrative research, and intuitive inquiry. Guilford Press.
Cho, H.H. (2016). Crafting a third space: Teacher beliefs and practices in curriculum reform for multicultural education (Doctoral dissertation). https://search-proquest-com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/docview/1804413921/?pq-origsite=primo
Choi, J. (2010). Educating citizens in a multicultural society: The case of South Korea, The Social Studies, 101(4), 174-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/00377990903284153
Fairclough, N. (2015). Language and power (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Gay, G., & Kirkland, K. (2003). Developing cultural critical consciousness and self-reflection in preservice teacher education. Theory into practice, 42(3), 181-187. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4203_3
Gee, J. P. (2004). An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. Routledge.
Guerra, P. L., & Nelson, S. W. (2009). Changing professional practice requires changing beliefs. Phi Delta Kapplan, 90(5), 354-359. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172170909000509
Ha, K. S. (2015). Urinara damunhwa kyoyuk-esŏ sahekwa kyoyuk-ui yŏkhalkwa hankye [The role and limitations of social studies in Korean multicultural education]. Sahekwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 22(1), 49-61.
Hwang, K. J. (2010). Damunhwa kyoyuk damron-e dehan bipanjŏk gochal: jung deong sahekwa-esŏ damunhwa ganeong seong -rl jungshim-ui ro [A Critical analysis on the discussion of multicultural education in Korea: Focusing on possibilities of multicultural education in the secondary social studies curriculum]. Sahekwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 7(4), 199-214.
Hwang, H. W. (2012). Cho deong yebi kyosa ui damunhwa insik kwa kwalyeon douin ishu [Elementary pre-service teachers’ perception of multiculturalism and related issues]. Damunhwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 5(2), 27-52.
Jin, S. W. (2012). Hanguk damunhwa kyoyuk-ui munjejeomkwa gesŏn bang-an [A Theoretical approach to Korean multicultural education in primary and secondary school: Problems and suggestions]. Kukje Jŏngchi Yŏngu, 15 (1), 129-156.
Jo, H. Y. (2013). Hanguk sahe damunhwa kyoyuk juyo ishu -e deahan gochal: ijunmin yogu-rl jungshim-ŭro [A study on major issues of multicultural education in Korea: Based on needs of migrants]. Damunhwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 6(4), 1-25.
Kim, H. A. (2020). Understanding “Koreanness”: Racial Stratification and Colorism in Korea and Implications for Korean Multicultural Education. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 22(1), 76-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.18251/ijme.v22i1.1834
KOSIS. (2019). Kuk-ka potal tong-gye [Korean Statistical Information Service]. http://kosis.kr/index/index.do
Kim. J. H. (2014). Damunhwa kyoyuk bunyaui kyosa kwalyeon yŏngu donghyang bunseok [Exploring trends and future directions of teacher-related research in multicultural education]. Damunhwa Kyoyuk Yeongu, 7(4), 81-100.
Kim, H. G. & So, K. H (2018). Hanguk ui damunhwa kyoyuk jeonchaek munseo-e natanan damunhwa kyoyuk seongkyeok-ui byeonhwa yangsang bunseok [A study on change of the nature of multicultural education in Korean multicultural education policy documents]. Damunhwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 11(2), 59-83.
Kim, S. M. (2013). Damunhwa siminseong-e kwanhan hanguk sahekwa kyoyuk kwajeong kochal [The multicultural citizenship on the national standard curriculum for social studies in South Korea]. Sahekwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 20(3), 55-68.
Lee, J. K. (2018). Mirae sahe hanguk damunhwa kyoyuk jŏngchaek-ui banghwang tamsek [Exploring the direction of multicultural education policy in the future Korean society]. Kyoyuk Munhwa Yŏngu,, 24(1), 549-567.
Lee, J. H. (2019. 5.2). Cho-jung- go deong hakkyo damunhwa haksang-su 2% nŏmutta [The Number of Damunhwa in the elementary, middle, and high schools passed 2%]. Mae- il jongkyo shimun. http://www.dailywrn.com/13791#
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312032003465
Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0. Harvard Educational Review, 84 (1), 74-86.
Lim, T. C. (2014). Late migration, discourse, and the politics of multiculturalism in South Korea. In Lie, J. (Ed.), Multiethnic Korea?: Multiculturalism, Migration, and Peoplehood Diversity in Contemporary South Korea (pp. 31-57). Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California at Berkeley.
Lin, S. C., & Wu, J. (2014). Relationships among Secondary School Teacher Multicultural Education Beliefs, Perceived Multicultural Education Praxis, Gender and Workshop Attendance. Journal of Studies in Education, 4(3), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/jse.v4i3.5890
Lye, J. (1997). Some post-structural assumptions. http://www. brocku.ca/english/course/4F70/poststruct.html.
May, S., & Sleeter, C. E. (Eds.). (2010). Critical multiculturalism: Theory and praxis. New York, NY: Routledge.
Merriam, S., B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mo, K. H. & Lim, J. S. (2011). Sahekwa damunhwa kyoyu-ui hyŏnhwangkwa kwaje [Current status of multicultural education in Korean social studies]. Kyoyuk Munhwa Yŏngu, 17(1), 261-290.
Mo, K. H. & Lim, J. S. (2013). Multicultural teacher education in Korea: Current trends and future directions. Multicultural Education Review, 5(1), 96-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/2005615X.2013.11102899
Nasir, N. I. S. & Hand, V. M. (2006). Exploring sociocultural perspectives on race, culture and learning. Review of Educational Research, 76 (4), 449-475. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076004449
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and education method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Paris, D., & Alim, H. S. (Eds.). (2017). Culturally sustaining pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world. Teachers College Press.
Rogers, R. (2013). Critical discourse analysis. In Trainor, A & Graue, E. (Eds.) Reviewing qualitative research in the social sciences (pp. 69-81). New York, NY: Routledge.
Ryu, B. R. & Kim, K. A. (2014). Jungdeong hakkyo kyosa-ui damunhwa kyoyuk insik [An analysis of the secondary school teachers’ perceptions of multicultural education in Korea]. Damunhwa Kyoyuk Yŏngu, 7(3), 87-111.
Saldaña, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers, 3rd edition, Sage.
Sleeter, C. E. (2012). Confronting the marginalization of culturally responsive pedagogy. Urban Education, 47(3), 562-584. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085911431472
Tonbuloglu, B., Aslan, D., & Aydin, H. (2016). Teachers' Awareness of Multicultural Education and Diversity in School Settings. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 64, 1-28.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. MA: Harvard university press.
Watson, S. L. (2012). Paradoxical multiculturalism in South Korea, Asian Politics & Policy, 4 (2), 233-258.
Watson, S. L., Park, G. C., & Lee, H. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ awareness and attitudes on South Korea’s increasing cultural and ethnic diversity and the role of multicultural education in K-12 schools. International Journal of Education, 3(2), 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/ije.v3i2.709
Yeo, M. R. (2016). South Korean teachers’ beliefs about diversity: The impact on practice of multicultural education (Doctoral dissertation). https://search-proquest-com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/docview/1839274676/?pq-origsite=primo.
How to Cite
So that authors and publisher may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use of the contents published in IJME, we require, as a condition of publication, that authors assign us all rights, including subsidiary rights, to their work. This enables us to promote and distribute the contribution in professionally appropriate venues. Authors have nonexclusive license to use their work without charge and without further permission after it has been published by IJME, as long as the IJME publication is referenced.