The Positive Impact of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Montana’s Indian Education for All

Jioanna Carjuzaa


Montana’s Indian Education for All Act is an unprecedented state constitutional mandate requiring educators to integrate American Indian content into all instruction.  Not all educators in this western state in the United States embrace this requirement, but those who do become change agents as they lead students to challenge the status quo.  Tensions between Indians and non-Indians influence Montana’s historical and contemporary social fabric.  From reservation border towns to urban school districts, and even in the state government, a pervasive lack of cultural awareness contributes to misunderstandings and persistent inequities.  Yet, in this climate, students are stepping up and speaking out.


Indigenous education; Indian Education for All; culturally responsive pedagogy; professional development

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