Rendering Latinas Invisible: The Underrepresentation of Latinas in K-12 History


  • Angela Maria Leslie California State University, Sacramento



Latinas’ history, women’s history, history textbooks, content analysis, critical race theory


There is a lack of research on the prevalence of Latinas in K-12 history textbooks. This research offers a content analysis of the unique gendered contributions of Latinas in history to fulfill this gap in educational research. Twelve middle and high school textbooks were examined using content analysis to assess the extent of Latina inclusion in history as well as how Latinas were characterized when discussed in books. The author confirms that there is an underrepresentation of Latinas in history textbooks. Latinas only represent .0063 of the individuals mentioned in historical content with few pictures of these successful Latinas. If young Latinas do not see Latina role models who are doctors, scientists, inventors, or entrepreneurs, they may be less apt to pursue those occupations. The author contends that it is imperative for all students, including Latinas, to see culturally relevant role models represented in textbooks to create a more inclusive and engaging classroom experience

Author Biography

Angela Maria Leslie, California State University, Sacramento

Assistant Professor

Undergraduate Studies, College of Education




How to Cite

Leslie, A. M. (2021). Rendering Latinas Invisible: The Underrepresentation of Latinas in K-12 History. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 23(1), 87–109.



Articles (Peer-reviewed)