Reconciling Leadership Paradigms: Authenticity as Practiced by American Indian School Leaders

David Henderson, Jioanna Carjuzaa, William G. Ruff


 This phenomenological study examined the complexity American Indian K-12 school leaders face on reservations in Montana, USA The study described how these leaders have to reconcile their Westernized educational leadership training with their traditional ways of knowing, living, and leading. Three major themes emerged that enabled these leaders to address racism in their schools and create spaces that were more conducive to the practice of culturally responsive pedagogy. The study highlights how leaders  reconcile cultural clashes and confront racism by using identity, relationality, and re-normed practices.


educational leadership, culturally responsive pedagogy, racism, Indian education, leading social justice

Full Text:



Copyright (c)